The occupations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania occurred during and after World War II, first from 1940 to 1941, then following World War II until the early-1990s, as the Soviet Union subsumed these countries within its territorial borders.  Similar to the Soviet occupation of the Baltic States, the US has occupied the Hawaiian Islands twice, first from January 16 to April 1, 1893, and then beginning on 12 August 1898. The US occupation of the Hawaiian Islands still continues.

This dissertation combines Power Transition Theory, Historical Institutionalism and Etzioni’s Power Classifications to examine the prolonged occupations of the Baltic States and Hawai‘i. Integrating the above theories with the inter-temporal application of international law, this study offers a comparative analysis of prolonged occupations.



  1. The threads of the Independence Movement, your dissertation among them, must be formed into the quilt of Sovereignty by one hand. Our time has come: will we grasp our destiny and shape our future?

  2. It’s hard to justify the occupation, when there is only greed in men’s hearts driving the deed. All reason seems to fall on deaf ears. How do we awake those deaf ears? Hawai`i No E Ka `Oi.

  3. Mahalo no ohana for all of the hard and good work. We must all sharpen our pencils and educate ourselves because this is what is pono? Tutu Lili`u told us, “Onipa`a”. I`o lako, Aloha!

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